Here is an overview of the materials you will need to build a snowboard:
The most commonly used wood is Poplar but other woods can be used to make a core.
The most commonly used composite is 22 oz triaxial knit fiberglass cloth. Some manufactures and builders also use carbon fiber, but do so sparingly since it can dramatically stiffen a snowboard.
This can be polyethylene, P-Tex, or any durable plastic that will bond well with epoxy resin.
Sintered Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) sheet designed for wax absorption and epoxy bonding.
Steel edges designed specifically for use in snowboards and skis. They feature T-prongs which are used to set the edges to the base material.
ABS, P-tex, or polyurethane strips that protect the core from moisture and make the board more resistant to damage from impacts (not required for cap style snowboard sidewalls).
Tip Spacer Material
The same material selected for sidewalls is often used as tip spacer material. This provides the same damage protection described for sidewall material but is applied in larger segments since the snowboard tip and tail are most prone to damage.
Special metal capped nuts designed specifically to be used in snowboards. They provide the threaded holes used to attach bindings to the snowboard.
Rubber Vibration Dampening Strips (AKA VDS Foil)
Thin rubber strips that dampen vibration during riding and decrease the risk of delamination.
The glue that holds all of the above mentioned materials together. The most commonly used epoxy among snowboard builders is marine epoxy.